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Axe on Facebook 13 Dr. Raven is really a great guy, wonderful gentle soul and even through his horrific suffering, he wags his tail, gives kisses and is the most wonderful loving guy. Come to find out, Brewer's yeast was one of the number 1 ingredients. Return to Homepage Silver Health Institute. Because of their high metabolic rates , birds must consume more food in proportion to their size than most animals. Sometimes you might get constipated.

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Musculoskeletal System – Skeletal System: TEAS

Birds have acute eyesight—raptors birds of prey have vision eight times sharper than humans—thanks to higher densities of photoreceptors in the retina up to 1,, per square mm in Buteos , compared to , for humans , a high number of neurons in the optic nerves , a second set of eye muscles not found in other animals, and, in some cases, an indented fovea which magnifies the central part of the visual field.

Many species, including hummingbirds and albatrosses , have two foveas in each eye. Many birds can detect polarised light. The avian ear is adapted to pick up on slight and rapid changes of pitch found in bird song. General avian tympanic membrane form is ovular and slightly conical. Morphological differences in the middle ear are observed between species. Ossicles within green finches, blackbirds, song thrushes, and house sparrows are proportionately shorter to those found in pheasants, Mallard ducks, and sea birds.

In song birds, a syrinx allows the respective possessors to create intricate melodies and tones. The middle avian ear is made up of three semicircular canals, each ending in an ampulla and joining to connect with the macula sacculus and lagena, of which the cochlea, a straight short tube to the external ear, branches from.

Birds have a large brain to body mass ratio. This is reflected in the advanced and complex bird intelligence. The immune system of birds resembles that of other animals. Birds have both innate and adaptive immune systems.

Birds are susceptible to tumours , immune deficiency and autoimmune diseases. The bursa of fabricius , also known as the cloacal bursa, is a lymphoid organ which aids in the production of B lymphocytes during humoral immunity. The bursa of fabricius is present during juvenile stages but curls up, and in the sparrow is not visible after the sparrow reaches sexual maturity.

The bursa of fabricius is a circular pouch connected to the superior dorsal side of the cloaca. The bursa is composed of many folds, known as plica, which are lined by more than 10, follicles encompassed by connective tissue and surrounded by mesenchyme.

Each follicle consists of a cortex that surrounds a medulla. The cortex houses the highly compacted B lymphocytes , whereas the medulla houses lymphocytes loosely.

There are , B lymphocytes located around each follicle. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Bird feet and legs. Comb anatomy , Lore anatomy , and Gular skin. Bird vision and Avian pallium. The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs second ed. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. The Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. Fun Science Facts from the Library of Congress".

How stable is the hold phase? The Journal of Experimental Biology. Journal of Experimental Biology. Museum of Osteology Oklahoma City. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences. Integrative and Comparative Biology. The Quarterly Review of Biology. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. The Ronald Press Company. Evidence from Early Cretaceous roadrunner-like tracks". Raptors of the World. Raptor Identification Guide for Southern Africa. Avian Anatomy - integument. The Use of Principles of Seabed Dynamics?

Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. Size, Function, and Life History. Diagnostic Imaging of Exotic Pets: Birds, Small Mammals, Reptiles. Archived from the original on March 11, University of Texas Press. Animal Feed Science and Technology. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research. General Zoology sixth ed. Sasol Birds of Prey of Africa and its Islands. Maclean The Ecophysiology of Desert Birds. A Complete Guide to their Biology and Behavior.

Form and function in birds. Owls of the United States and Canada: Johns Hopkins University Press. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Retrieved 17 March Biology of the Ubiquitous House Sparrow: From Genes to Populations. Gross anatomy Superficial anatomy Neuroanatomy Comparative anatomy Transcendental anatomy Microscopic anatomy histology molecular.

Level of organization Structures. Body plan Decapod anatomy Gastropod anatomy Insect morphology Spider anatomy. Bird anatomy Fish anatomy Shark anatomy. Allometry Brain morphometry Morphometrics Physiognomy. Origin of birds Origin of flight Evolution of birds Darwin's finches Seabirds. Archaeopteryx Omnivoropterygiformes Confuciusornithiformes Enantiornithes Chaoyangiiformes Patagopterygiformes Ambiortiformes Songlingornithiformes Apsaraviformes Gansuiformes Ichthyornithiformes Hesperornithes Lithornithiformes Dinornithiformes Aepyornithiformes Gastornithiformes.

Struthioniformes ostriches Rheiformes rheas Tinamiformes tinamous Apterygiformes kiwis Casuariiformes emus and cassowaries. Acryllium Agelastes Guttera Numida. Meleagridinae Perdicinae Phasianinae pheasants and relatives Tetraoninae. Columbiformes doves and pigeons Mesitornithiformes mesites Pteroclidiformes sandgrouses. Phoenicopteriformes flamingos Podicipediformes grebes. Cuculiformes cuckoos Musophagiformes turacos Otidiformes bustards.

Caprimulgiformes nightjars and relatives Steatornithiformes Podargiformes Apodiformes swifts and hummingbirds. Charadriiformes gulls and relatives Gruiformes cranes and relatives. Phaethontiformes tropicbirds Eurypygiformes kagu and sunbittern. Gaviiformes loons or divers Sphenisciformes penguins Procellariiformes albatrosses and petrels Ciconiiformes storks Suliformes cormorants and relatives Pelecaniformes pelicans and relatives. Cariamiformes seriemas and relatives Falconiformes falcons and relatives Psittaciformes parrots Passeriformes perching birds.

Cathartiformes New World vultures and condors Accipitriformes eagles and hawks Strigiformes owls Coliiformes mousebirds Trogoniformes trogons and quetzals Leptosomatiformes cuckoo roller Bucerotiformes hornbills and hoopoes Coraciiformes kingfishers and rollers Piciformes woodpeckers and relatives. Retrieved from " https: Articles needing additional references from September All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Views Read Edit View history.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 4 September , at By the time the egg is laid the embryo consists of many cells differentiating into the various tissues, organs and body systems. The fowl retains some vestiges of the characteristics of its reptilian ancestors. One characteristic in particular is the influence of ambient temperature during the post laying period on embryonic development.

Failure to satisfy this need leads to significantly weaker embryos. Once in the incubator, the temperature must be controlled within very close parameters. Because the avian embryo has no anatomical connection to the hen, all of its nutritive requirements, except oxygen, must be contained within the egg. From very early on, the embryo develops special membranes external to its body to access the nutrients in the egg and to carry out essential bodily functions.

To better carry out an investigation into poor hatchability it is necessary to have knowledge of the way the embryo develops from day to day. This is important information when attempting to identify the cause of any poor results. Photographs of the following steps may be viewed by clicking here. This indicates that there is some system to synchronise the hatching process. Certain toxins can be deposited in the fats underneath your skin, creating an age spot—usually a permanent effect like a tattoo.

You can get the liver working properly again, and get the proper production of enzymes at the same time, by drinking liquid structured silver on a regular basis. Putting silver gel on the age spot can help reduce that which has been stored under the skin.

For the best benefit, apply topically two to four times a day and take one teaspoon orally twice a day. Yeast is one of the main components in premature aging. We have yeast between our toes and in our intestines. Likewise, bacteria can cause tissue damage. Silver prevents premature aging by killing bacteria, viruses, and yeast. Drink one teaspoon of a liquid pH-balanced silver twice a day for wellness and prevention.

If you are sick, drink two teaspoons twice a day. Silver gel can also be applied to specific areas topically one to three times a day. Additional benefits can come from using freeform amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids. Anti-Bacterial Found on the skin, in the bloodstream, in the intestines, or in the hair, bacteria cause countless diseases.

When serious diseases are examined in the lab they find that every serious chronic disease is associated with the presence of pleiomorphic bacteria or mold. These damage the immune function that normally protects the cell from foreign invaders. When the bacteria or mold invade a cell and reduce the immune protection, they allow toxins and contagions to enter the cell and damage the DNA, allowing serious disease to originate. Structured silver starts killing bacteria in as little as fifteen seconds.

If you put structured silver gel, liquid, or mist in direct contact with bacteria, the bacteria will usually be totally destroyed within six minutes. Some bacteria may take longer but can be destroyed with regular structured silver use.

For preventive use, drink one teaspoon of silver liquid each morning and night. That dose can be doubled to fight an aggressive bacterial infection. Silver gel may be applied topically to any affected areas one to four times a day.

Immune-supporting herbs may also be used. Nursing home residents often have a weakened immune system. This makes them susceptible to bacterial infections. Many develop bedsores, and bacteria—like staph—will get into the sore. Bedsores can last up to seven years without healing. Imagine having an open wound, living in a nursing home, and having an infection that is treated with antibiotics that stop working after just a few weeks.

Structured silver gel is currently being used in clinical trials. Results are showing that it can help close deep open-tunneling wounds, leprosy, and staph, including MRSA.

By spraying the gel on the wound twice a day, bacteria are destroyed and the body can heal itself more quickly. Anti-Fungal Fungus can get into any warm, moist area and often feeds off of sugars. Cutting off sugars can combat intestinal fungus or yeast. For a yeast or fungus infection in the armpits or vagina, apply silver gel directly to the yeast or take liquid structured silver internally.

It can be applied topically one to four times a day, or as needed. The recommend liquid use is two teaspoons, one to three times a day.

Acidophilus supplementation may be used simultaneously. Yeast and fungus can get inside your intestines, causing muscle pain and symptoms of depression and attention deficit disorder. It can also result in all the symptoms of headaches, lymph problems, lupus and autoimmune disorders, including fibromyalgia.

Many people have resolved these symptoms by taking two teaspoons of a structured silver daily as part of an intestinal yeast and fungus cleanse. The cleanse may be accompanied by one to three weeks of flu-like symptoms while the yeast leaves the body.

Structured silver colonics have been used in the rectum, and douches are being successful used in the vagina. For this reason, the human race is at a high risk for virus activity. We have viruses that are being treated incorrectly with antibiotics. Antibiotics do nothing to destroy or cure viral infections.

Structured silver is very powerful and functions against both reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase viruses, interfering with their replication process. By drinking two tablespoons of structured silver in the morning and night, you can potentially defeat an existing viral infection. Inhaling a nebulized form of silver works best for a viral infection in the lungs or sinuses. Drops can also be placed in your ears, eyes, nose, or throat twice a day.

To prevent a cold or flu, drink one teaspoon twice a day. If you are exposed to a lot of coughing and sneezing, the dose can be doubled. Immune-stimulating herbs are also beneficial.

Viruses are very difficult to kill using pharmaceutical medicines because antibiotics do not kill viruses. The best way to destroy a virus is to put structured silver liquid, gel or mist in contact with the virus for 6 minutes. Many viruses infect young children and never fully leave the body. They stay dormant until the immune system becomes weak or stressed and then up comes the virus years later.

For more information about silver and viruses, see this 10 minute video with Dr. Arthritis Arthritis is characterized by painful swelling and inflammation in the joints. This can happen when uric acid is not excreted from the body quickly enough and is deposited in the joints of the toe, ankle, or knee.

It can recrystallize, creating the same effect has having sand crystals between your joints. This damages the joint directly, causing inflammation around the joint and inflaming muscles, tendons, and cartilage.

By drinking two teaspoons twice a day, or as needed, structured silver can help reduce pain and inflammation. Silver gel can also be applied topically to the joint if it is hot or red.

Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and essential fatty acids may also be used. Asthma Asthma occurs when the bronchioles—the breathing tubes of the body and lungs—become inflamed and swell shut, preventing the body from drawing oxygen into the lungs. This results in choking, coughing, and heavy mucus production that can clog the breathing tubes to the point of asphyxiation.

To reduce inflammation, inhale structured silver from a nebulizer for 15 minutes in the morning and at a night. One teaspoon of silver liquid should also be taken twice a day. The gel can be placed inside the nostrils as a lubricant to help prevent against triggers for an asthma attack. Probiotics can also help reduce inflammation that originates from the digestive tract.

It occurs when we put our feet in shoes and keep them in a warm, moist area where fungus can grow. The first step to prevention is to wear clean shoes and reduce the amount of time that your foot stays in a moist sock. Structured silver can be sprayed into your socks or directly on the foot. Structured silver gel is an even better option in this situation.

It can be applied between the toes to kill any yeast growth. You can also spray silver into your shoes to kill any bacteria. The fungus will return if you continue to wear shoes or socks that are housing bacteria or fungus.

Bad Breath Bacteria residing in the mouth and gums or between the teeth usually cause bad breath. Using a silver rinse can destroy these bacteria.

By rinsing the mouth for six minutes in the morning and at night, you will get rid of the bad breath. Bad breath can also be caused by strep throat or a staph infection. In these cases, bacteria destroy the healthy tissue, causing red blisters and white pus to form in the back of throat. The odor comes as a result of the degenerating tissue. Structured silver is the fastest way to remedy the problem. Spraying structured silver into the nose four times a day can treat odor caused by a sinus infection.

Bed Sores When a bed does not have proper balance, pressure points can form. Irritation or rashes on the skin then lead to open wounds. To treat bedsores, get a good bed with a neutral balance. Do not use too much laundry detergent on bedding and sheets. Structured silver gel can be applied directly to the bedsore one to four times a day.

The gel should be kept in place with a sterile bandage. You can expect improvement to begin very quickly after the gel is introduced to a wound.

Improvement in diabetics may take two to three times longer because of circulation problems. Bladder Infection Urine remains in the bladder for about six hours before it is drained. If bacteria get into the bladder, it will duplicate every 20 minutes—a bladder infection can become serious very quickly. The infection will degrade the lining of the bladder and possibly travel up the tubes from the bladder to the kidneys, causing a kidney infection.

To treat a bladder infection, two tablespoons of silver liquid should be taken hourly for the first two days. For the next two weeks, take two tablespoons twice a day. You may expect to destroy the bladder infection within the first 12 to 24 hours. Structured silver liquid can be taken with cranberry juice or juniper berries. Blood Cleanser Bacteria, viruses, yeast, parasites, and other toxins can get inside our blood. Structured silver is one of the best tools for blood cleansing. It will enter a single red blood cell and cleanse at the cellular level.

For acute blood cleansing, take one ounce every hour for four hours. For some serious conditions, you will need to take one four ounce bottle every day for the first three days, followed by a maintenance dose of two tablespoons twice a day. To cleanse your blood each day, take one to two teaspoons, one to three times a day.

Vitamin E in soft gel form may also help. Boils Boils occur when bacteria or viruses get under the skin and duplicate, destroying the healthy tissue. Boils can be caused by simple irritations such as the rubbing of a belt on the skin or agitation on the side of a foot. Applying a silver gel topically one to four times a day can treat a boil. In some cases, you may want to cover the boil with a bandage. In addition, you will want to drink two teaspoons of structured silver liquid twice a day.

As soon as the liquid and the gel come in contact with the bacteria, the boil growth will stop. You will see improvement of the boil within four hours. Bronchitis Bronchitis can be bacterial or a virus that causes the inflammation of the bronchioles—the tubes that the pass air from the throat down into the lungs.

Bronchitis results in excess mucus production, clogged lungs, and coughing. Bronchitis can be cleared up by drinking two teaspoons of structured silver two to four times a day, inhaling silver from a nebulizer 15 minutes twice a day, and by using an intra-nasal spray twice a day for congestion.

For those living, working, or traveling with someone with bronchitis, spray structured silver into the nose for prevention. The gel can also be applied to the inside of the nostrils.

Immune-stimulating herbs and coenzyme Q10 will also help. A cellular cleanse will prevent toxins and bacteria and viruses from gaining access blood stream. Bruises Bruises occur when a blood vessel is ruptured and blood pools in the tissue around it. Bruising often results from impact, but can also be caused by bacterial or viral infections. Structured silver helps remove the blood from the tissue, improving the bruise. Simply soak a sterile bandage in liquid silver and place it on the bruise.

Structured silver gel can also be applied to the wound one to four times a day. Bug Bites When a bug bites you or you are stung by a bee, toxins are introduced into your system. Structured silver helps by reducing inflammation and pain and improves wound healing. A bandage soaked in structured silver can be applied directly to the bite. Drinking one ounce of structured silver liquid twice a day for two days will also lessen tissue damage and improve toxin excretion. You can expect faster improvement and less inflammation.

Burns Burns occur from the sun, radiation, x-rays, fire, heat, and from other chemicals in our environment. It reduces pain and inflammation and improves wound healing. Structured silver liquid can be sprayed on the burn or used to soak the burn, and the gel can be applied to the wound where a significant reduction in pain, inflammation and tissue damage will be visible in the first hour.

Often burn wounds are so painful that you will want to spray on structured silver liquid or use a silver gel that has an aloe mixed with it to help with the pain. The gel will stay on the wound for a long period of time. The liquid will get into the wound very quickly, but needs to be reapplied every few hours. Drink one ounce of structured silver liquid twice a day until the burn is gone. Canker Sores Canker sores have a myriad of causes. Too much acid in the mouth is the number-one cause.

The tissue in the mouth gets destroyed by stomach acid, too many sugars, and bacterial or viral infections. A pH-balanced structured silver can help improve the issues quickly. Hold one ounce of pH-balanced structured silver liquid in your mouth for six minutes and then drink it.

Repeat this process twice a day. Silver gel can also be applied topically to the wound. If the canker sore is a result of the herpes virus, the sooner you get the gel on the wound, the sooner you can stop the virus from replicating and getting worse.

You can expect the wound to improve twice as fast with structured silver gel applied to the canker sore than if it were to run its course normally.

Cataracts Cataracts cloud your vision, distort your view, and make it difficult to read and focus. Fortunately, the condition can be prevented and improved. Apply two or three drops of liquid structured silver directly in the eyes one to four times a day and drink two teaspoons twice a day for one week, or until the problem is remedied. Other products that can help include bilberry eyebright, lutein, and antioxidants. You may expect to have an improvement in your eyesight very quickly, especially if you have very dry eyes or a bacterial or viral infection.

Cataracts that are very progressed are difficult to reverse, but the surface of the eye and the clarity of lens can be improved by using structured silver topically. Cavities Teeth are susceptible to cavities. Though the enamel is very hard, sugar and bacteria have the ability to eat away the enamel and cause cavities.

Rinsing your mouth with a structured silver regularly will kill cavity-causing bacteria. Rinse your mouth for six minutes with one ounce of liquid silver two times a day. Then swallow two teaspoons to benefit your entire body. Coenzyme Q10 will also help improve gum health.

Chicken Pox Because chicken pox is a virus, structured silver can be very beneficial in neutralizing the problem. It can also help with the associated blistering and scarring. By applying the gel within four hours of the first outbreak, structured silver can help reduce the impact to the skin.

Often the blisters will not completely arise and scarring will be lessened. If you already have blisters, applying the gel topically one to four times a day will help conditions improve quickly. In addition, you should drink two teaspoons of structured silver twice a day. Chicken pox can return years later in the form of shingles. This dosage will also help with shingles. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic fatigue syndrome has a number of different causes—viral, bacterial, hormonal, or parasitic.

Important identifying factors include muscle and joint aches, stiffness, and fatigue. It can also affect hearing and eyesight. Two tablespoons of structured silver can be taken two or three times a day for relief.

Gel can be applied or sprayed on sore muscles once or twice a day as needed for aches and pains. Structured silver liquid drops can be used in the eyes and ears as well. Many people suffering from Epstein bar virus or mononucleosis have taken structured silver to help restore their energy. Additional products to help with chronic fatigue are coenzyme Q10 and free-form amino acids.

Colds Colds are a virus. A cold gets in your nose and your sinuses and starts to duplicate there, producing a lot of mucus. Many will experience postnasal drip—mucus dripping down the back of the sinuses into the throat—when they go to bed.

The mucus contains a virus or bacteria. When it reaches the back of the throat, it causes swelling and inflammation and can even spread into the ears.

Taking one tablespoon of structured silver three times a day, and spraying intranasally four or five times a day, will help reduce congestion and inflammation. Mouth rinse, ear drops, eye drops, nose drops, and throat spray can all be used as well. Colitis, Irritable Bowel, Diverticulitis Colitis is an inflamed colon. Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by irritated and swollen bowels, and alternating constipation and diarrhea.

Diverticulitis results from overstretched intestines that collect toxins—the body starts absorbing the toxins that should be passing out of the body and the toxins can get into the bloodstream. By taking two teaspoons twice a day, liquid silver can kill the yeast that causes these ailments. Herbs like cats claw, digestive enzymes, and acidophilus will also help. Congestion Congestion—including nasal, lung, and upper respiratory—can stop you from breathing properly.

Congestion leads to high production of mucus and can clog the nose, throat, sinuses, and lungs. If bacteria cause the congestion, it can last for months if the bacteria are not destroyed. To remove congestion, spray structured silver into your nose one to four times a day and drink two teaspoons of the liquid twice a day.

Inhaling silver 30 minutes a day in nebulized form can help lung congestion. Congestion can create a poor sleep pattern and lead to decreased immune function. A hot, steamy shower will help you clean out your sinuses. Once the sinuses are clean, spray structured silver high into the nostrils using a nasal atomizer.

Rinse your mouth with structured silver as well, swallowing the solution when finished. Conjunctivitis Pink Eye Conjunctivitis results when bacteria build up on the surface of the eye. It can actually change the white of your eye, causing it to swell and turn pinkish red.

If the inflammation is not reduced, the eyesight can be permanently damaged. Structured silver can help when you apply two or three drops of liquid structured silver directly into the eyes one to four times a day. Structured silver gel can be placed directly into the eye where the gel will stay in place longer. Drink two teaspoons twice a day for one week or until the problem is remedied. This will usually remedy the problem within the first two to three days.

Additional products that help are bilberry, eyebright, and lutein.