Classification and Types of Wetlands

How much fish should I eat?

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Fortunately, most states have enacted special laws to protect tidal marshes, but diligence is needed to assure that these protective measures are actively enforced. A swamp is any wetland dominated by woody plants. There are many different kinds of swamps, ranging from the forested Red Maple, Acer rubrum , swamps of the Northeast to the extensive bottomland hardwood forests found along the sluggish rivers of the Southeast.

Swamps are characterized by saturated soils during the growing season and standing water during certain times of the year. The highly organic soils of swamps form a thick, black, nutrient-rich environment for the growth of water-tolerant trees such as Cypress Taxodium spp. Some swamps are dominated by shrubs, such as Buttonbush or Smooth Alder.

Plants, birds, fish, and invertebrates such as freshwater shrimp, crayfish, and clams require the habitats provided by swamps. Many rare species, such as the endangered American Crocodile, depend on these ecosystems as well. Swamps may be divided into two major classes, depending on the type of vegetation present: Swamps serve vital roles in flood protection and nutrient removal. Floodplain forests are especially high in productivity and species diversity because of the rich deposits of alluvial soil from floods.

Many upland creatures depend on the abundance of food found in the lowland swamps, and valuable timber can be sustainably harvested to provide building materials for people. Due to the nutrient-rich soils present in swamps, many of these fertile woodlands have been drained and cleared for agriculture and other development.

Historically, swamps have been portrayed as frightening no-man's-lands. This perception led to the vast devastation of immense tracts of swampland over the past years, such as the destruction of more than half of the legendary Great Dismal Swamp of southeastern Virginia.

Forested swamps are found throughout the United States. They are often inundated with floodwater from nearby rivers and streams. Sometimes, they are covered by many feet of very slowly moving or standing water. In very dry years they may represent the only shallow water for miles and their presence is critical to the survival of wetland-dependent species like Wood Ducks Aix sponsa , River Otters Lutra canadensis and Cottonmouth Snakes Agkistrodon piscivorus.

Bottomland hardwood swamp is a name commonly given to forested swamps in the south central United States. Shrub swamps are similar to forested swamps except that shrubby vegetation such as Buttonbush, Willow, Dogwood Cornus sp. In fact, forested and shrub swamps are often found adjacent to one another.

The soil is often water logged for much of the year and covered at times by as much as a few feet of water because this type of swamp is found along slow moving streams and in floodplains. Mangrove swamps are a type of shrub swamp dominated by mangroves that covers vast expanses of southern Florida.

Bogs are one of North America's most distinctive kinds of wetlands. They are characterized by spongy peat deposits, acidic waters and a floor covered by a thick carpet of sphagnum moss.

Bogs receive all or most of their water from precipitation rather than from runoff, groundwater or streams. As a result, bogs are low in the nutrients needed for plant growth, a condition that is enhanced by acid forming peat mosses. There are two primary ways that a bog can develop: Over time, many feet of acidic peat deposits build up in bogs of either origin.

The unique and demanding physical and chemical characteristics of bogs result in the presence of plant and animal communities that demonstrate many special adaptations to low nutrient levels, waterlogged conditions, and acidic waters, such as carnivorous plants.

Bogs serve an important ecological function in preventing downstream flooding by absorbing precipitation. Bogs support some of the most interesting plants in the United States like the carnivorous Sundew and provide habitat to animals threatened by human encroachment.

Bogs in the United States are mostly found in the glaciated northeast and Great Lakes regions northern bogs but also in the southeast pocosins. Their acreage declined historically as they were drained to be used as cropland and mined for their peat, which was used as a fuel and a soil conditioner. Recently, bogs have been recognized for their role in regulating the global climate by storing large amounts of carbon in peat deposits. Bogs are unique communities that can be destroyed in a matter of days but require hundreds, if not thousands, of years to form naturally.

Northern bogs are generally associated with low temperatures and short growing seasons where ample precipitation and high humidity cause excessive moisture to accumulate. Therefore, most bogs in the United States are found in the northern states. Northern bogs often form in old glacial lakes. They may have either considerable amounts of open water surrounded by floating vegetation or vegetation may have completely filled the lake terrestrialization.

The sphagnum peats of northern bogs cause especially acidic waters. The result is a wetland ecosystem with a very specialized and unique flora and fauna that can grow in these conditions called acidophiles. Moose, deer, and lynx are a few of the animals that can be found in northern bogs. Pocosins are densely vegetated with trees and shrubs. They are subjected to fire about every 10 to 30 years Photo by Dr.

The word pocosin comes from the Algonquin Native American word for "swamp on a hill. Usually, there is no standing water present in pocosins, but a shallow water table leaves the soil saturated for much of the year. They range in size from less than an acre to several thousand acres located between and isolated from old or existing stream systems in most instances.

Most Americans do not consume nearly enough fiber in their diet, so while it is wise to aim for this goal, any increase in fiber in your diet can be beneficial. Most of us only get about half of what is recommended. Fiber contributes to digestive health, helps to keep you regular, and helps to make you feel full and satisfied after eating. Additional health benefits, of a diet high in fiber — such as a reduction in cholesterol levels — have been suggested by some so may be an additional benefit.

In general, an excellent source of fiber contains five grams or more per serving, while a good source of fiber contains 2. It is best to get your fiber from food rather than taking a supplement.

In addition to the fiber, these foods have a wealth of nutrition, containing many important vitamins and minerals. In fact, they may contain nutrients that haven't even been discovered yet! It is also important that you increase your fiber intake gradually, to prevent stomach irritation, and that you increase your intake of water and other liquids, to prevent constipation.

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Cod Provençale may look fancy, but ours is light, easy, delicious, and budget-friendly. Do more with less. Are You At Risk? Chat Online Chat Closed. It is unlikely that one serving of such fish would pose a risk. However, it is best to avoid these while pregnant or breastfeeding. While omega-3 supplements are beneficial, if you avoid all fish, you will be missing out on other essential nutrients.

It is best to eat a variety of lower mercury fish. In addition, you can take an omega-3 supplement. The Association recommends the brand Nordic Naturals. Safe Catch individually tests each and every fish for mercury levels. Safe Catch also raises their mercury level restrictions even further than what the FDA allows creating an even healthier fish option.

Learn more about Safe Catch by visiting their website: Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary guidelines for Americans Food and Drug Administration. What pregnant women and parents should know.

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