protein Intake Calculator
Gestational diabetes and nutritional recommendations. Drain; return to stockpot. Managing preexisting diabetes for pregnancy: Protein is a key nutrient for gaining muscle strength and size, losing fat, and smashing hunger. Which of the following is not a possible risk factor for developing GDM? Ruth Diabetes Watchers, providing continuing education diabetes review classes for health care professionals and dietary services in the Broward County, Florida, area.
Her past obstetric history was significant for GDM in her first pregnancy two years before. The pregnancy resulted in the delivery of a lb, 2-oz stillborn son at 38 weeks gestation. A three-hour oral glucose tolerance test OGTT showed the following:. As a result, Rosa was diagnosed with GDM, placed on a diet, and taught how to monitor her blood glucose.
Which result from the three-hour OGTT was abnormal? FBS and one hour c. All except FBS d. Start an insulin regimen. Review diet, modify bedtime snack if needed, and encourage 30 minutes of walking each day.
Start Rosa on the smallest dose of glyburide at night to help with FBS levels. Instruct her to continue her current diet and exercise regimen. Start her with a small dose of NPH at bedtime and emphasize the importance of diet. Admit Rosa to the hospital because of noncompliance. Which is not a likely complication from fetal hyperglycemia in women with GDM? Which of the following exchange groups should be avoided at breakfast? Starches and fruits b.
Fruit and milk c. Which insulin should be adjusted for a patient whose blood sugar levels are high after lunch around 2 pm but normal during the rest of the day? Increase morning fast-acting insulin b. Reduce morning fast-acting insulin c. Increase morning NPH d. Add some fast-acting insulin before lunch. Which of the following daily calorie intakes is recommended for morbidly obese women? Recurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus: Normal and Problem Pregnancies.
Hospitalization Related to Diabetes in Pregnancy, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; Boinpally T, Jovanovic L. Management of type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes in pregnancy. Mt Sinai J Med. Low prevalence of islet autoantibodies in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. GAD65 autoantibodies in women with gestational or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus diagnosed during pregnancy.
Postpartum metabolism and autoantibody markers in women with gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed in early pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Maternal age and screening for gestational diabetes: International association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy.
Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. Diabetes mellitus and other endocrine diseases. Management of diabetes in pregnancy. Moore TR, Jovanovic L. Pregnancy risks in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Last updated June 4, Impact of increasing carbohydrate intolerance on maternal-fetal outcomes in 3, women without gestational diabetes. Postprandial versus preprandial blood glucose monitoring in women with gestational diabetes mellitus requiring insulin therapy.
Lipid levels in former gestational diabetic mothers. Managing preexisting diabetes for pregnancy: Patterns of glycemia in normal pregnancy: Aiming at new targets to achieve normoglycemia during pregnancy. Patient empowerment and the traditional medical model. A case of irreconcilable differences?
Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: Intensive nutrition therapy for gestational diabetes. Rationale and current issues. Dietary manipulation as a primary treatment strategy for pregnancies complicated by diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr. Alternative therapies for the management of gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes and nutritional recommendations.
Prenatal and perinatal influences on long-term psychomotor development in offspring of diabetic mothers. Low-carbohydrate diet for the treatment of gestational diabetes: Hone J, Jovanovic L. Approach to the patient with diabetes during pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Can a low-glycemic index diet reduce the need for insulin in GDM? Shields L, Tsay GS.
California Department of Public Health website. Recommendations for vitamin A use during pregnancy. Vitamin A Supplementation in Pregnant Women. World Health Organization; Tremblay A, Gilbert J. Milk products, insulin resistance syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Resistance exercise decreases the need for insulin in overweight women with gestational diabetes mellitus.
Management of diabetes and comorbidities in pregnancy. Number , January Managing Preexisting Diabetes and Pregnancy: Technical Reviews and Consensus Recommendations for Care. American Diabetes Association; A randomized trial comparing perinatal outcomes using insulin demetir or neutral protamine Hagedorn in type 1 diabetes. J Matern Neonatal Med. Basal insulin analogues in diabetic pregnancy: Diabetes Metab Res Rev.
US Food and Drug Administration website. Continuous glucose monitoring during pregnancy. Castorino K, Jovanovic L. Pregnancy and diabetes management: Metformin compared with glyburide in gestational diabetes: Oral hypoglycaemic agents in diabetic pregnancies.
Breastfeeding after gestational diabetes pregnancy: Does breastfeeding protect against pediatric overweight? The role of exercise in the prevention and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. Curr Sports Med Rep. Primary prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus and large-for-gestational-age newborns by lifestyle counseling: Protein During the second half of the pregnancy, patients should consume 1.
Fat Monounsaturated fat is preferred. Artificial Sweeteners Excessive use of artificial sweeteners should be avoided. Alcohol Patients should avoid consuming alcohol during pregnancy. Smoking Patients should avoid smoking during pregnancy. Breakfast Patients should consume a small breakfast and restrict carbohydrates to no more than two servings along with one to two servings of protein to help control increased insulin resistance in the morning and avoid postprandial hypoglycemia.
Distinguish between the two classes of gestational diabetes mellitus. Evaluate the rationale for restricting carbohydrate consumption, especially for breakfast. A three-hour oral glucose tolerance test OGTT showed the following: Add some fast-acting insulin before lunch Soften pie crust as directed on package.
Remove 1 crust from pouch; unfold crust. Place crust in bottom and up sides of 1-quart casserole. In medium saucepan, combine all filling ingredients. Bring to a boil over medium-high heat, stirring frequently. Pour into crust-lined casserole. Remove second crust from pouch; unfold crust. With small cookie cutter or sharp knife, cut holes in crust.
Top casserole with crust; seal edges with fork or flute, trimming edges if necessary. If necessary, cover edge of crust with strips of foil after 15 to 20 minutes of baking to prevent excessive browning. Use small cookie cutters to create holes in the top pastry crust.