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The wearer of the glasses can determine who to analyse, whether an individual or a group, without their knowing 3. Writer, director Philip S. Goodman dies at Goodman, a film, television and stage writer and director, passed away at his residence. India Infrastructure Finance Company has agreed to provide long-term finance for developing port infrastructure in the public-private partnership mode, a senior government official said. The ministry aims to develop port projects worth Rs 15, crore through public-private partnership.

Core sector at month low, contracts 0. The eight-sector output fell 0. Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill cleared: Indian Army inducted the first regiment of the indigenously-developed surface-to-air Akash missile system. World Asthma Day was observed across the world on 5 May World Asthma Day takes place on the first Tuesday of May.

Sina Weibo is a Chinese microblogging website. It is similar to Twitter and Facebook. Michael Blake passed away: Oscar-winning author and screenwriter Michael Blake has passed away, He was Initially, the programme will be implemented in thirteen districts in which more than children have been identified as malnourished. To deal with malnourishment, a special management programme will be organised on the community basis.

Microsoft launches Edu-Cloud for institutions in India: President heads for Russia: President Pranab Mukherjee will land in Moscow for a visit that will be replete with symbolism. Pune ornithologist bags Green Oscar: The French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, under armed security and a cloud of conflicted opinions and emotions, was presented a freedom of expression award from the PEN American Center.

Two billion people do not have bank accounts: IMF chief Christine Lagarde: Nearly two billion people globally do not have bank accounts including those in the US. India loses ground on global motherhood index: India slips to 10th spot in global m-cap ranking: The total worth of all listed Indian companies is less than the total market capitalisation of Switzerland-listed ones.

It was the reverse story at the end of the , when India was at the number nine spot in global rankings. India has now dropped to number India, Iran sign pact on developing Chabahar port: Notwithstanding US objections, India went ahead with the signing of an agreement with Iran for the development of the strategically important Chabahar port which will give India sea-land access route to Afghanistan bypassing Pakistan.

The pact was signed after comprehensive talks between visiting Road Transport and Highways Minister Nitin Gadkari with the Iranian leadership. Card is issued free of cost to customers maintaining a quaterly balance of 50, rupees.

Geeta wins Asian wrestling bronze: World food prices fall to nearly 5-year low in April: Global food prices fell in April to their lowest since June , as dairy led most commodities down, the United Nations food agency. The Union Government and Asian Development Bank ADB signed a 31 million US dollars loan agreement to boost water availability in selected river basins in Karnataka and ensure improved water efficiency in irrigation.

The program will improve irrigation efficiency in three river basins in the state saving million cubic meters of water. The United Nations health agency on 9 May declared Liberia Ebola-free, hailing the monumental achievement in the west African country where the virus has killed more than 4, people. World Red Cross Day celebrated: Purushottam is currently serving as Ambassador to Venezuela. She is expected to take up her new assignment soon. North Korea successfully conducted underwater test-fire of a newly developed Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile.

A record number of 10 Indian-origin Members of Parliament MPs were elected in recently concluded general election that elected 56th Parliament of the UK. Achal Kumar Jyoti appointed as Election Commissioner: Achal Kumar Jyoti, a former Chief Secretary during the tenure of Narendra Modi as Gujarat Chief Minister, was appointed as the Election Commissioner, filling one of the two vacancies in the three-member body. The aim of this new naval base at Porbandar is to beef up security along the km coastline of the state.

Gujarat has a coastline of km interspersed with 43 ports. It will also increase the maritime security on western coast and strengthen surveillance and security in the region. BrahMos land-attack cruise missile successfully test-fired from Car Nicobar Islands: Land-to-land configuration of BrahMos missile was successfully test-fired from the Nicobar Islands.

She was elected as MP to House of Commons i. President Pranab Mukherjee has appointed Mr. The tenure of Mr. Saxena will commence from the date he enters upon the office till he attains age of 65 years. PM Narendra Modi launches three social security schemes- 1 on pension, 2 on insurance: PM Narendra Modi launches three social security schemes- 1 on pension, 2 on insurance.

The Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana will offer a renewable one-year life cover of Rs 2 lakh to all savings bank account holders in the age group of years, covering death due to any reason, for a premium of Rs per annum. Atal Pension Yojana will focus on the unorganised sector and provide subscribers a fixed minimum pension of Rs 1,, Rs 2,, Rs 3,, Rs 4, or Rs 5, per month, starting at the age of 60 years, depending on the contribution option exercised on entering at an age between 18 and 40 years.

Haryana Government includes Deaflympics in its sports policy: Haryana Government has decided to include Deaflympics in its Sports Policy in order to boost the morale of differently-abled sportspersons in the state. Rosberg wins Spanish GP ahead of teammate Hamilton: Nico Rosberg has finally got the better of Mercedes teammate Lewis Hamilton this season, winning the Spanish Grand Prix from pole position to gain ground on the championship leader. Yuki Bhambri wins doubles title: However, the overall list is dominated by the companies from the US and China.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi became the first prime minister in last 30 years to visit Naxal hotbed of Dantewada Chhattisgarh: Welfare projects worth about Rs. Conservative Party have secured seats from a total of seats. Coin was launched to mark the birth centenary of Swami Chinmayananda. Achal Kumar Jyoti is appointed as the new Election commissioner. Shashi Kapoor is 46th Film personality to receive this award.

It is celebrated to showcase Indian Culture in Russia. India has successfully test fired advanced version of Brahmos Supersonic Cruise Missile. Test-fired was conducted at Nicobar Islands in Andaman and Nicobar. Brahmos-III has a range of km and can carry weight upto kg.

National Technology day was observed across the country on 11th May. India has named private banker K. Kamath as the first head of the new development bank the BRICS group of emerging market economies is setting up.

NITI Aayog likely to junk expenditure criterion for estimating poor: How many poor people does India have? Biocon founder and managing director Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw has been ranked one of the most influential executives in the world in the field of medicine by a top UK-based medical publication. It seeks to provide potable water to bus passengers at reasonable price. Union Government has constituted Committee headed by Justice A.

New Governor appointed in 4 sates: Two governors appointed during the tenure of the UPA government were shifted to Mizoram and Manipur satate. Punjab becomes first state to issue Soil Health Cards to farmers: Punjab has become the first state to issue Soil Health Cards to all farmers in the state. The state has got 66 such laboratories which can test 3. The government has approved Rs.

It was way back in that this award was first given that has cash prize of 10, pounds. The owner and president of software firm Celframe, heads the list with wealth of 4 billion dollars. India way behind on WHO health targets: India has met only four of ten health targets under the Millenium Development Goals MDG , and has made next to no progress on another four, according to new data from the World Health Organisation.

The deadline for achieving MDGs runs out this year. The country had registered a record foodgrain production of India th on global human capital index; Finland tops: India ranked at a low th position on a global Human Capital Index, which measures the countries in terms of the economies leveraging their human capital, where Finland has topped the nation list.

Banks have enrolled This disinvestment will fetch government over crore rupees. Harbhajan Kaur Dheer is a 62 year old councilor of the Labour Party. India to grow at 8. Indian economy is likely to clock 8.

Indian-American wins National Geographic Bee championship: Karan Menon, a year-old Indian-American student, has won the prestigious National Geographic Bee competition in the US, in which the top three positions were bagged by Indian-origin contestants.

India to assume presidency of World Health Assembly in Geneva after 18 years: Infosys to open first overseas campus in China: Vice President Hamid Ansari confers Pt. Haridutt Sharma Award to Anurradha Prasad: She was bestowed with this award for her contribution in the field of Journalism, Writing and Social Services. Joseph Appointed as Controller General of Accounts: With this win he qualified for the Rio Olympics by earning himself a quota place.

Canada plans to cut emissions by 30 per cent by Canada announced it plans to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 30 percent below levels by amid international efforts to create a new framework for addressing climate change.

Fiscal Deficit for the Financial Year stands at 4. Government betters its own Financial Targets During The year-old Gowda hurled the disc to a distance of Djokovic and Sharapova triumph: Harvard names two Indians for prestigious Radcliffe fellows: Shivani Agarwal from Indian Institute of Science and Maharaja Pandit from University of Delhi are among 50 scholars, scientists and artists who will begin their one-year fellowships along with 48 at the Radcliffe Institute in September He was chosen from a list of 10 contenders from around the world.

Shah on Direct Tax Matters Constituted: Shah on Direct Tax Matters Constituted. No Indian investor will be allowed to hold shares exceeding 10 per cent of the paid-up equity shares in an insurance company, according to the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India IRDAI.

All investors where there are one or more investors in an insurance company jointly should not hold more than 25 per cent of the paid-up equity share capital of the insurance company. Kerala also hosted 35th National Games, which was held between January 31 to February Yuki Bhambri has a lot to celebrate.

For the first time ever, the yearold Delhi lad played the final of a clay court Challenger. The effort helped him reach in the latest world rankings, the best for an Indian at the moment, ahead of Somdev Devvarman and Saketh Myneni Astra missile successfully test-fired from Sukhoi MKI: After postponing twice, the indigenously-developed beyond visual range air-to-air missile, Astra was successfully launched from Su MKI fighter jet in two developmental trials conducted at the Integrated Test Range, Chandipur, Odisha.

The concept of public interest can also be invoked by the government when voluntary retirement sought by an employee will be against public interest. The court said public health was suffering from a scarcity of doctors. Qualified doctors did not join the public service. Even if they did so, they chose voluntary retirement and went into lucrative private practice. Public Interest has greater say The Court said that poor could not be put in peril by a paucity of specialists in government hospitals.

The right to practice a profession under Article 19 1 g was subject to the interest of the general public, the court said. The HC allowed Dr. Though the HC allowed Ms. Singh to retire, it rued the way government doctors were seeking voluntary retirement almost every day in the State.

Stats related to incidence of cancer in India and the World News Menace of Cancer With cancer emerging as the second leading cause of death globally, the World Health Organisation WHO has listed ways to reduce cancer risk. The WHO said consumption of tobacco and alcohol, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity are major factors that increases cancer risk worldwide and are also the four shared risk factors for other non-communicable diseases. Cancer is the uncontrolled multiplication of cells.

Cancer can spread from where it started to another part of the body. The original cancer is called the primary tumor. The cancer in another part of the body is called metastatic or secondary cancer. Metastatic cancer has the same type of cancer cells as the primary cancer. The term metastatic cancer is usually used to describe solid tumors that have spread to another part of the body. Some chronic infections are risk factors for cancer and have major relevance in low and middle-income countries.

Hepatitis B and C viruses and some types of HPV increase the risk for liver and cervical cancer, respectively. Infection with HIV substantially increases the risk of cancers such as cervical cancer. Incidence of Cancer in India Doctors have warned that prevalence of cancer cases are on the rise in India. The Indian Council of Medical Research stated that approximately 12 to 13 lakh new cases of cancer are being diagnosed every year along with an existing 25 to 30 lakh cancer cases at any given time in India.

The saddest part is that a vast majority of them are being diagnosed in advanced stages. Particulars of the Rythu Bima scheme Mains level: News Rythu Bima Scheme Rythu Bima group life insurance scheme is introduced by the Telangana government for all the landholding pattadar farmers in the age group of years from August It is proving to be an instant aid to their families in case of death of the enrolled farmer, irrespective of the cause either natural or otherwise.

The settlement of claims has proved to be the fastest under any life insurance schemes available in the country. Settlement of 52 claims out of deaths of 78 beneficiary farmers in the first five days of implementation of the scheme is an ample proof of fastest life insurance claims settlement in the country.

Seamless Operational Framework State government departments have been provided with tablet PCs for this. Agriculture Department officials have been putting the devices to optimal use beginning with collection of details of lands under cultivation by Agriculture Extension Officers early in Later, the devices were used during purification of land records and now for Rythu Bima.

Manual work in the settlement of Rythu Bima claims is limited only at village and mandal-level. The AEO concerned collects the copies of Aadhaar of deceased farmer and the nominee, bank account passbook copy of the nominee, filled-in claim form and death certificate.

The software creates a text file of all claims received till 4 p. Way Forward Rythu Bandhu and Rythu Bima have improved the image of Agriculture Department and its officials in villages enormously and the recognition would help in maintaining good liaison with farmers. Besides, the act of helping somebody get instant help gives immense satisfaction to the field-level work by the officials.

A scheme with such an operational framework can be a remedy to the distressed farmers at pan-India level. Particulars of the act and its provisions Mains level: Reference is drawn to the Mental Healthcare Act, , which has come into force w. As per Sec 21 4 of the said Act, every insurer shall make provision for medical insurance for treatment of mental illness on the same basis as is available for treatment of physical illness.

A paradigm shift Share this: Changes required in abortion law in India in order to make abortions safe as well as improve health of women Context Abortion law in India Abortion has been legal in India under the Medical Termination of Pregnancy MTP Act since when it was hailed as one of the more progressive laws in the world According to the Act, abortion can be provided at the discretion of a medical provider under certain conditions Though the Act was liberal for its time, it has limitations that pose barriers to women and girls seeking legal abortions Objectives of the law To control the population resulting from unintended pregnancies which even today are to the tune of 48 per cent To reduce the increasing maternal mortality and morbidity due to illegal, unsafe abortions What are the barriers in the law?

Currently, the Act allows abortion up to 20 weeks When it comes to foetal abnormalities and pregnancies resulting from rape, this limit is proving to be a hurdle for both the woman and the provider Women seeking an abortion after the legal gestation limit a phenomenon that is fairly common due to later detection of abnormalities in the foetus or shame and stigma associated with rape , often have no option but to appeal to the courts and run from pillar to post for permission to terminate the pregnancy What does this lead to?

Many women, when denied legal abortions, turn to unqualified providers or adopt unsafe methods of termination According to a study published in The Lancet recently, Aug, 16, Odisha launches health scheme for 70 lakh families Note4students Mains Paper 2: Particulars of the Scheme Mains level: PEGylated Streptokinase Mains level: News What is Clot Buster?

It is all set to revolutionize the treatment of ischemic strokes. Ischemic stroke is a condition caused by a dysfunction in the supply of blood to the brain due to emboli, thrombus or atherosclerosis occurring in cerebral arteries. PEGylated Streptokinase, the novel recombinant protein Thrombolytic molecule has been precisely engineered through decades of research for enhanced proteolytic stability.

Epygen is the first company in India with exclusive license of this Novel Biological Entity NBE thrombolytic protein for ischemic stroke. Brain Stroke- the second biggest killer According to the American Stroke Association ASA , brain strokes are the second leading cause of death in the world with a staggering 15 million people effected. It is causing 11 million people either die or become permanently disabled.

Back2Basics Council of Scientific and Industrial Research The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research was established by the Government of India in is an autonomous body that has emerged as the largest research and development organisation in India It runs thirty-eight laboratories and thirty-nine field stations or extension centres throughout the nation, with a collective staff of over 12, scientists and scientific and technical personnel Although it is mainly funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, it operates as an autonomous body through the Societies Registration Act, The research and development activities of CSIR include aerospace engineering, structural engineering, ocean sciences, life sciences, metallurgy, chemicals, mining, food, petroleum, leather, and environmental science.

Prevention of drug abuse News Assistance for Prevention of Alcoholism and Substance Drug Abuse Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment implements this Central Sector Scheme for identification, counseling, treatment and rehabilitation of addicts through voluntary and other eligible organizations. District Hospitals subject to condition that they maintain separate accounts for de-addiction. Railway Hospitals near major Railway Stations subject to condition that they maintain separate accounts for de-addiction.

The proposals of above eligible organizations are forwarded by the State Governments. However, the proposals of NGOs for release of grant in aid are considered in the Ministry only after it is inspected and recommended by the State Government.

Aug, 01, [op-ed snap] The public-private gap in health care Note4students Mains Paper 2: Ayushman Bharat scheme Mains level: Leadership and advocacy for effective action on the pandemic Strategic information and technical support to guide efforts against AIDS worldwide Tracking, monitoring and evaluation of the pandemic and of responses to it Civil society engagement and the development of strategic partnerships Mobilization of resources to support an effective response Share this: It intends that within the next decade, the unacceptably high levels of out-of-pocket expenditures that poor households across the country currently incur in seeking healthcare especially secondary and tertiary-level care—will fade away.

Issue over Pricing-Model Some healthcare provider networks have raised concerns about the viability of the pricing model. Some private sector healthcare providers have shown reluctance in seeking empanelment under the initiative, saying the rates for treatment packages are too cheaper.

Treatment Rates- NOT the elephant in the room Setting treatment rates at the national level is not an easy task, especially when it is being done for the first time in the world. There is, admittedly, a dearth of national-level comprehensive costing studies; that will be one of the core research areas AB-NHPM will be looking into continuously. Nonetheless, the current rates have been determined following a rigorous process.

States examples are promising There are large schemes running successfully in states such as Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and Karnataka which can be a rich source of information for the mission. These schemes have no dearth of empanelled hospitals which are providing healthcare services at the rates so provisioned.

Recognizing the large variations in cost structures across the country, AB-NHPM gives states the flexibility to increase or decrease rates, depending on their contexts. By definition, these rates are median rates, and will need to be adjusted at the state level.

The viewpoints of hospitals about the rates have been taken into consideration during the current costing exercise. AB-NHPM plans to move on to more sophisticated provider payment mechanisms, including variants of diagnosis-related group DRG models, which can assuage such concerns.

It seeks to provide quality health services to all beneficiaries and, therefore, would urge all quality hospitals to participate in the process. Hospitals should carefully consider the following issues A The hospitals should understand that the nationally prescribed rates are not intended to cover the cost of capital and infrastructure in the short run but the marginal cost. They seek to ensure that excess capacities are utilized, leading to greater efficiency in service utilization of hospitals.

This efficiency is not just in terms of empty beds but also more efficient hospital administration, optimum utilization of professionals and easier process flows for the patients with quicker turnaround times. B Hospitals, especially the big ones, have a responsibility. Universal health coverage is based on a social contract, where the rich need to pay for the poor, the healthy for the sick and the young for the elderly.

Large and expensive hospitals need to do their bit as well. This partnership will be a win-win situation. The mission will benefit from the private sector capacity to provide services to large numbers.

At the same time, this provides the private sector an opportunity for shaping the most ambitious healthcare scheme in the world. Way Forward Healthcare is a matter of utmost concern of time. Private Hospitals can play a leading role and their reluctances over pricing are essentially considered by the government. It is often said that the foot soldiers in a revolution are unaware of their role in historic change. Same implies to the participation of these private players here.

The evolutionary nature of the scheme provides ground for its immediate implementation so that the beneficiaries get affordable healthcare at their earliest. Jul, 07, Ayushman Bharat: Hub-and-spoke model to help train health workers Note4students Mains Paper 2: Read the attached story News Solving the Manpower Issue One of the biggest challenges in the rollout of Ayushman Bharat is manpower training for the 1,53, health and wellness centres.

For the HWCs, ECHO is one of several programmes that will be used to train ASHAs as, for the first time, primary care in India moves beyond reproductive health and vaccination to include screening for non-communicable diseases, geriatric care and mental health.

Thegoal is to use the telemedicine platform so that healthcare performance may be enhanced by access to knowledge. This programme is to conduct the training of ASHAs. Particulars of the training A team from UNM travelled to India to kick off the first installment of the training. The first batch of officials from four states was trained in ECHO over three days at a hotel here.

Participants were acclimatized with the ECHO model consisting of: The participant states — Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi and Maharashtra — also clarified their doubts during the exercise. Context India is witnessing significant trends in health: Climbing out-of-pocket costs is becoming difficult for most households. It also aims to create a unified health identity of citizens — as they navigate across services across levels of care, i.

Primary, Secondary and Tertiary and also across Public and Private. Making Ayushman Bharat more promising This flagship health programme is designed with a powerful yet simple objective in mind: The program leverages a two-pronged approach: On the supply side, substantial investments will be made to build 1.

Utility of the National Health Stack The innovativeness of the proposed National Health Stack design lies in its ability to leverage a shared public good — a strong digital spine built with a deep understanding of the incentive structures of the system.

Once implemented, it will significantly bring down the costs of health protection, converge disparate systems to ensure a cashless and seamlessly experience for the poorest beneficiaries, and promote wellness across the population. The passing of the Mental Healthcare Act, brings forth a stronger and more robust legal scaffold and humane and patient-centric rights-based approach for mental health care in our country.

Mental Healthcare Act, envisions adequate quality care for the citizens through skilled healthcare professionals so that we can reduce stigma against mental health disorders. The main objective is to exponentially increase skilled capacity in mental health in the country. The courses for different categories of healthcare providers would be of about 30 hours duration each and spread across a period of three months and would be digitally delivered to remotely located healthcare providers across the country.

It will augment the existing skills in mental health in the country. The HWCs would provide preventive, promotive, and curative care for non-communicable diseases, dental, mental, geriatric care, palliative care, etc. Government has initiated universal screening of common NCDs such as diabetes, hypertension and common cancers along with Tuberculosis and Leprosy, which will eventually help in reducing the disease burden of the country.

In the coming times, it could be possible to detect mental health disorders at these centres and if it can be included in the universal screening along with these diseases. The institute was inaugurated on 27 December , establishing it as an autonomous body under the Societies Registration Act. NIMHANS is a multidisciplinary institute for patient care and academic pursuit in the frontier area of mental health and neurosciences.

The manufacturers of medical devices are required to meet risk proportionate regulatory requirements that have been specified in the rules and are based on best international practices. As of now, all medical devices that fall under regulation have to undergo single or multiple clinical trials to prove their performance and quality in comparison to products currently available in the market. Conduct of clinical investigations while following the international practices is conducted in a manner that ensures objectives of patient safety and welfare and discovery of new medical devices.

The government has proposed to do away with clinical trials for in-vitro diagnostic IVD devices with the aim of speeding up availability of such devices in India. The Union health ministry will now release a notification to this effect, after a meeting of the Drug Technical Advisory Board DTAB at which the board agreed to the proposal to amend the provisions of the Medical Devices Rules What are the amendments?

The board deliberated the matter and agreed to the proposal to amend the provisions in Rule 64 making it identical for waiver of clinical performance evaluation of in-vitro diagnostic medical devices. This is in line with a waiver given for medical devices under Rule 63 of the Medical Device Rules. What are the benefits of doing so? The new rules seek to remove regulatory bottlenecks to make in India, facilitate ease of doing business while ensuring availability of better medical devices for patient care and safety.

Medical device experts believe that the move will help importers to a large extent as the exemption of trials would also mean accelerating approval of state-of-the-art devices. But it raises few questions as well The question is whether the US, Japan and EU European Union will give a similar reciprocal advantage to Indian exporters and waive off the need for clinical evaluation if such devices are sold in India. It is also about parity. Read the attached story News National Health Resource Repository NHRR The Union ministry of health and family welfare has launched the first ever registry in the country registry of authentic, standardised and updated geo-spatial data of all public and private healthcare.

Under the Collection of Statistics Act , more than 20 lakh healthcare establishments such as hospitals, doctors, clinics, diagnostic labs, pharmacies and nursing homes would be enumerated under this census, which will capture data on more than 1, variables.

The Central Bureau of Health Intelligence CBHI has looped in key stakeholders, including leading associations, allied ministries, and several private healthcare service providers. What is it going to provide? This resource repository shall enable advanced research towards ongoing and forthcoming healthcare challenges arising from other determinants of health such as disease and the environment. Approximately 4, trained professionals are working with dedication to approach every healthcare establishment to collect information.

Additionally, it shall generate real-world intelligence to identify gaps in health and service ratios, and ensure judicious health resource allocation and management. The National Health Profile covers demographic, socio-economic, health status and health finance indicators, along with comprehensive information on health infrastructure and human resources in health.

The application for the paediatric indication is under review by the DCGI and final approval is expected by the end of this month. While a trivalent influenza vaccine contains both A subtype viruses, it has only one of the B subtype virus, the quadrivalent vaccine offers a greater breadth of protection as it includes both B subtype viruses. It is because of a greater breadth of protection that a few other companies too have shifted from a trivalent to a quadrivalent vaccine. Since the vast majority of influenza vaccines manufactured were trivalent till recently, the World Health Organisation WHO used to recommend two A subtypes and one B subtype, plus an optional fourth strain the other B virus strain.

The viruses used in the vaccine are killed and this eliminates the possibility of the virus in the vaccine itself causing infection. In India, the vaccine will be available as a single dose pre-filled syringe Eventually, it will be available in a vial for public health use. Incidences of different Strains In the case of H1N1, there are two strains — California and Michigan — that cause influenza. In India, the Michigan strain was earlier circulating and has been replaced by the California strain.

Each year, the vaccine changes to reflect the different strains in circulation. Year-round, scientists across the globe track, analyze and classify the viral strains causing illness. Indian context Despite the high number of infections and mortality each year, India does not have in place a national policy for influenza immunization. Pregnant mothers, children aged below five and young people with asthma, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and high blood pressure are at a greater risk of infection and death.

The Ministry of Health issues only H1N1 vaccination guidelines for different vulnerable groups including healthcare workers.

If we want to reduce the influenza burden in adults, then we must target children as they act as reservoirs. Back2Basics Influenza Influenza is a virus that actually has hundreds of different strains. Influenza A is the group that most commonly causes illness in humans.

All influenza A viruses are further broken down into H and N subtypes. There are 16 H subtypes and nine N subtypes, but only three combinations have actually caused highly contagious illness in humans.

Other combinations have been found to infect other species such as birds and pigs , but they have not caused widespread human infections.

Even in these subtypes, the influenza virus can mutate and change each year. For this reason, influenza viruses are also named using: The host of origin swine, chicken, etc. Strain number Year of discovery or isolation Influenza B Influenza B is less common but still causes outbreaks of seasonal flu.

Influenza B is not broken down into subtypes like influenza A is, but it is broken down into individual strains. Quadrivalent flu vaccines contain two strains of influenza A and two strains of influenza B. Influenza B can cause outbreaks of seasonal flu but they occur less frequently than outbreaks of influenza A.

Jun, 18, New health scheme flawed: Ayushman Bharat Scheme Mains level: It said current policy change in India will only end up strengthening the insurance business.

The same money invested in our public hospitals would have brought secondary and tertiary care closer to poor in our government hospitals. In the garb of cost-cutting, the government is exposing the people to danger in the hospitals.

The IMA said the way forward for the country is to invest in our government hospitals for better health infrastructure and manpower. It is a society registered under The Societies Act of India, It delegates its powers to a Working Committee A representative body of all state Branches for implementation of programmes and activities. Jun, 15, [op-ed snap] Holes in the scheme Note4students Mains Paper 2: West Bengal and Delhi chose to keep away from signing the MoU.

Odisha will most likely not be a part of Ayushman Bharat as it wants to launch its own state-based scheme for health insurance. Particulars of the Ayushman Bharat Programme Mains level: The NHPM will not cover conditions that do not require hospitalization, dental procedures , congenital physical problems , vaccinations and fertility-related procedures , and will also not cover treatment of a person who has attempted suicide.

The document also lays down that for a claim ratio of up to percent, states will not pay any additional premium. If claim payment to the hospital is delayed beyond 15 days, insurers will have to pay an interest of 1 percent for every seven days of delay. If the premium refund is not made by the insurer to SHA within 30 days of the communication for the refund, there will be 1 percent interest for every week of delay. Administration of the Scheme For the purpose of administration of the scheme, states have been divided into two categories.

Admin Cost Sharing In category A states, the administrative cost allowed is 10 percent if claim ratio less than 60 percent, 15 percent if claim ratio is between 60 percent and 70 percent and 20 percent if claim ratio is between 70 percent and 80 percent. In Category B states, administrative cost allowed will be 10 percent if claim ratio is less than 60 percent, 12 percent if claim ratio is between 60 percent and 70 percent, and 15 percent if claim ratio is between 70 percent and 85 percent Share this: May, 05, National Health Protection Mission: Ayushman bharat scheme read the attached story Mains level: News Framework for the insurers: Claim ratio is calculated as the total value of all claims paid by the company divided by the total amount of premium collected in a financial year A claim ratio of is usually thought to be an indicator of a robust claim settlement system by an insurer Concern related to reverse bidding One of the concerns insurance companies raised at the meeting was that the reverse bidding in which the top three bidders are allowed to revise their bids should not be done for this programme, Another concern related to eligibility condition the eligibility conditions be relaxed so that new entrants in the insurance sector with less than three years experience can bid as well Share this: Apr, 26, Expand national programmes to eliminate malaria by Particular of the Hepatitis disease Mains level: Targets set under the initiative.

News Important decision taken by the Health Ministry The Health Ministry has decided to roll out an initiative for prevention and control of viral hepatitis Why: Apr, 20, Health ministry to name hospitals which do not perform under Kayakalp initiative Note4students Mains Paper 2: Apr, 13, [op-ed snap] Can Ayushman Bharat make for a healthier India?

Note4students Mains Paper 2: Particulars of the Ayushman Bharat Scheme Mains level: The important dimensions discussed in the newscard. News The Ayushman Bharat Scheme: Not much Mains level: Osteoporosis and Osteopenia Mains Level: However, not every person diagnosed with osteopenia will develop osteoporosis Share this: Mar, 31, [op-ed snap] Billed for change: Concerns discussed, regarding the NMC bill, in the newscard. Mar, 27, In draft digital health security law, 5-year jail term, Rs 5 lakh fine for data breach Image source Note4students Mains Paper 3: Mar, 24, [op-ed snap] A first step: National Health Protection Scheme Mains level: Mar, 03, [op-ed snap] Follow the states: There is a token provision of Rs 2, crore in the budget.

However, the total cost is likely to be nearer Rs 20, crore per year A new 1 per cent cess will make about Rs 11, crore available to the government in a year Selection of insurance provider for the scheme Selecting the insurance provider is an extremely complex process. Each step, such as whether private sector companies would be allowed to bid, must be considered carefully Otherwise, it could invite legal challenges Accreditation of participating hospitals under the scheme The accreditation of participating hospitals is another difficult exercise The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana RSBY is a glaring example Many private hospitals registered under the RSBY were reported to have indulged in malpractices such as prescribing unnecessary diagnostic testing and hospitalisation The NHPS is not enough Insurance-based intervention in the health sector can only be a partial solution The government cannot abdicate its responsibility of providing a high-quality and affordable public health infrastructure For the infrastructure, the National Health Policy has set a target of health expenditure to reach 2.

Feb, 28, [op-ed snap] Health outcomes index: Particulars of the index Mains level: The governance and information domain measures the quality of data data integrity indicator and the average occupancy in important health-related posts such as principal secretary health , chief medical officer, etc.

Key inputs and processes measure the current status of healthcare professional vacancies, infrastructure at district hospitals, and the speed of financial governance in the states What are the key results that emerge from the health index?

Feb, 24, NHPS beneficiaries to be drawn from economic, caste census: Centre to states Note4students Mains Paper 2: Feb, 22, Complaints over medical bills: Probability of dying between birth and exactly 1 year of age, expressed per 1, live births Neonatal mortality rate: Probability of dying during the first 28 days of life, expressed per 1, live births Share this: Particulars of the scheme Mains level: No doubt, insurance of Rs5 lakh per annum would be a comforting thought if one needs hospitalization and surgical intervention Such events may be few and far between Share this: Unwillingness to pay reimbursement The proportion of hospitalisation cost reimbursed is much higher for insurance schemes directly bought by households than government ones In the case of insurance being paid by the government, insurance companies are most often unwilling to pay the reimbursement as compared to when a household pays Why: Feb, 12, [op-ed snap] States of health: Feb, 07, [op-ed snap] Is Ayushman Bharat a game changer?

Two main aims To strengthen primary health care which has been lacking in the country and To offer finacial protection from catastrophic expenditure How can the programme be a game changer? Feb, 06, Global cancer survival rates improve, but wide gaps remain Note4students Mains Paper 2: Feb, 06, [op-ed snap] Making health insurance work Note4students Mains Paper 2: How will the scheme work?

Both Central and State health agencies or their intermediaries will have to develop the capacity for competent purchasing of services from a diverse group of providers Otherwise, hospitals may undertake unnecessary tests and treatments to tap the generous coverage What is the main concern?

Reduced allocation for the National Health Mission and sidelining of its urban component raise concerns about primary care If primary health services are not strong enough, there is great danger of an overloaded NHPS disproportionately draining resources from the health budget That will lead to further neglect of primary care and public hospitals, which even now are not adequately equipped to compete with corporate hospitals in the strategic purchasing arena That will lead to decay of the public sector as a care provider This must be prevented by proactively strengthening primary health services and public hospitals Financial issues regarding the scheme The NHPS will need more than the Rs.

Some decided to fund their own State-specific health insurance programmes, with distinctive political branding Will they agree to merge their programmes with the NHPS, with co-branding?

Govinda Rao Share this: Feb, 05, Modicare will find it tough to get out of the blocks Image source Note4students Mains Paper 2: Feb, 03, [op-ed snap] Get cracking: News What is the issue?

The government has lost precious time in initiating a health scheme that serves the twin purposes of achieving universal coverage and saving people from high health care costs Fresh hopes: Jan, 24, Clinical trials: The focus should be on deploying a capacity-building strategy using AYUSH physicians upskilled through a bridge-training programme This will help to deliver quality, standardised primary health care to rural populations Example: The Maharashtra government has led the way in implementing bridge training for capacity-building of licensed homoeopathy practitioners to cross-prescribe Is capacity-building of licensed AYUSH practitioner enough?

Objectives of the AYUSH To upgrade the educational standards in the Indian Systems of Medicines and Homoeopathy colleges in the country To strengthen existing research institutions and ensure a time-bound research programme on identified diseases for which these systems have an effective treatment.

To draw up schemes for promotion, cultivation and regeneration of medicinal plants used in these systems. News Context India is the second largest consumer and producer of tobacco-based products — categorised as sin goods or demerit goods And it has become imperative for policymakers to devise measures including taxation regime to effectively curb their use Health of a citizen has primacy: The revisions in the taxation policy concerning tobacco products should ideally have a mix: National Medical Commission Mains level: According to the ministry of health and family welfare, a total 1.

Attached stories and particulars of the NMC bill Mains level: The National Medical Commission Bill, aimed at reforming Indian medical education and practice, is in trouble After protests, the Bill was referred by the Lok Sabha to a Parliamentary Standing Committee for a re-look Whatever be the outcome of this exercise, the altered Bill is unlikely to please everyone Reasons behind these protests against the bill Because the questions it seeks to address are knotty, with no straightforward answers First, how can India produce enough competent doctors to meet its evolving health-care challenges?

Second, how can it minimise opportunities for rent-seeking the fact or practice of manipulating public policy or economic conditions as a strategy for increasing profits in medical education and practice? Reforms required in health sector Context National Medical Commission Bill It has brought to the fore a disturbing aspect of an ongoing controversy — the activities of medical lobbies that have persistently thwarted efforts to put consumer interest above their own Most medical practitioners do not possess educational qualification There are some Dec, 30, [op-ed snap] India and the future of life sciences innovation Note4students Mains Paper 3: Medical Innovation News Status of Indian Pharmaceutical Sector The Indian pharmaceutical industry is a world leader in bringing generic drugs to the market in a cost-effective way Additionally, many Western pharmaceutical companies have established small-molecule development and manufacturing in India More recently, Indian pharma companies have demonstrated the capability to develop biosimilars for global healthcare markets These activities are highly valuable, providing essential and established medicines at more affordable prices to people around the world The Future of India in Pharmaceutical Sector The future of India will go beyond generics and biosimilars There are many attractive features that the existing Indian ecosystem can offer the life sciences industry And India will eventually play a critical role in the advancement of innovative medicines How is India a fertile ground for Medical Innovations?

Dec, 27, [op-ed snap] Mental Healthcare Act: A paradigm shift Note4students Mains Paper 2: Particulars of the act Mains level: News Why is the Mental Healthcare Act, important and unique?

Dec, 23, India recorded about 3. Various efforts done by the government for countering the menace of Cancer News Rising number of cancer cases in India According to the National Cancer Registry Programme, India recorded an estimated 3.

Dec, 07, [op-ed snap] Universal health coverage is the best prescription Note4students Mains Paper 2: Dec, 05, India will need 2. Specially mentioned in the syllabus News Particulars of the report According to the report, to achieve a modest doctor-to-population ratio of 1: India Hypertension Management Initiative Mains level: Rising incidents of diseases like diabetes, hypertension etc. The primary goal of this project is to reduce morbidity and mortality due to CVDs, the leading cause of death in India, by improving the control of high blood pressure, which is a leading risk factor for CVDs among adults in India.

IHMI will be progressively rolled out in 25 districts in the first two years across districts selected by the Health Ministry for expansion of active screening and intensification of treatment activities for hypertension. To reduce disability and death related to cardiovascular disease CVD , The leading cause of death in India, by improving the control of high blood pressure hypertension , reducing salt consumption and eliminating artificial trans-fats, leading risk factors for CVD.

To raise awareness about NCDs amongst families regarding packaged food and processed foods with excessive salt and trans-fat. Essential Components It will support the adoption of standardized simplified treatment plans for managing high blood pressure. Data on hypertension will be improved through streamlined monitoring systems, and the lessons learned and practice-based evidence will inform further interventions to improve cardiovascular care.

Nov, 30, [op-ed snap] How to free Indians from the medical poverty trap Note4students Mains Paper 2: Generic medicines, bioequivalence Mains level: Nov, 25, [op-ed snap] States of healthcare Note4students Mains Paper 2: News Context Data from Global Burden of Disease study given in the article will help states chart their individual Health Targets States need to beef up disease monitoring systems How health status changes around the world?

Health status of populations across the world changes over time in response to socio-economic, demographic, nutritional, scientific, technological, environmental and cultural shifts Reason behind health transitions: The Global Burden of Disease study was initiated 26 years ago to chart the changing patterns of disease-related death and disability from onwards Working areas: Since then, estimates are periodically provided for years of life lost to premature mortality as well as for years of disease-related disability that is weighted for severity A combined measure of these two metrics is expressed as the loss of Disability Adjusted Life Years DALYs attributable to any disease or risk factor First-of-its-kind Indian effort to map state-level disease burdens It was undertaken by over 1, experts of the Public Health Foundation of India, in partnership with the Indian Council of Medical Research and the team that leads the global study The results, reported recently, highlight significant trends common to all states as well as important differences between them Results of the study: Life expectancy at birth improved in India Life expectancy at birth improved in India from This dropped to 33 per cent in But the share of non-communicable diseases in the disease burden increased from 30 per cent in to 55 per cent in Statewise trends: It is estimated to be losing 2.

Nov, 07, Tuberculosis cases: Govt announces steps to check under reporting Note4students Mains Paper 2: Particulars of the TB Mains level: Oct, 31, Fewer TB deaths in India: Oct, 28, India has the second highest unvaccinated children for measles in world Note4students Mains Paper 2: Particulars of the Measles Mains level: A red, flat rash which usually starts on the face and then spreads to the rest of the body typically begins three to five days after the start of symptoms.

Symptoms usually develop 10—12 days after exposure to an infected person and last 7—10 days. From the UPSC perspective following things are important: Not much Mains Level: Oct, 12, Underweight and obese children: Alarm bells ring at both ends in India, Lancet study raises concern Obese fat boy check heart by stethoscope. Tight shirt of pajamas,healthy concept Note4students Mains Paper 2: These days, Obesity is a serious health issue among children.

News A new study in The Lancet The study was released on World Obesity Day on October 11 The study looked at BMI body mass index trends in countries from a Obese Population It has found that the number of obese girls in age group has risen from 5 million to 50 million in 40 years And that of boys from 6 million to 74 million.

IMR is an important health factor. News What is IMR? Oct, 09, Impact evaluation: Oct, 09, Health ministry approves new tuberculosis drug Image source Note4students Mains Paper 2: Oct, 04, [op-ed snap] The cold facts: Sequencing is important because it can detect mutations in genetic material that help the virus evade human immune systems, making it more deadly Because India does not sequence a large enough sample of viral genomes, it would be missing mutations that could explain changes in the lethality of the virus The way forward Vaccination is the best weapon that India has against this menace Because Oseltamivir, the antiviral commonly deployed against flu, is of doubtful efficacy unless administered early enough Yet, India has far stayed away from vaccinating even high-risk groups such as pregnant women and diabetics Better surveillance of influenza will possibly change this perception by revealing the true scale of this public health issue Share this: IMR is a crucial health factor.

Sep, 21, [op-ed snap] Who knew healthcare was so complex Note4students Mains Paper 2: Sep, 09, [op-ed snap] Indicators that matter: News Context The article talks about the low quality health services in India and suggests some ways to improve Health Sector. Effective step to counter TB problem in India. Economies which tend to depend heavily on medical insurance tend to have higher expenditure on healthcare on aggregate The US is a classic example, where the widespread provision of subsidized insurance products has led to a sharp escalation of costs A tendency to over-utilize medical services , and adopt expensive innovative procedures even when evidence of their effectiveness is lacking has made health spending in the US extremely inefficient How can Preventive Public Health contribute to India?

Aug, 17, After stent, price of knee implants capped: Problems and solutions related to Indian Rural Health Sector. Aug, 04, 8. The rates of blindness and vision impairment have decreased in recent years The number of cases has risen as the world population has aged Share this: Nov, 28, [pib] What is Family Planning ?

Family Planning FP is a global partnership that supports the rights of women and girls to decide, freely, and for themselves, whether, when, and how many children they want to have. FP is an outcome of the London Summit on Family Planning India is a signatory to FP FP is based on the principle that all women, no matter where they live should have access to lifesaving contraceptives What are the steps taken by India?

Introducing New Contraceptive Choices:

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